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durian in papua new guinea

==========================================, Mon, 22 June 2009, Phnom Penh Post by Lee Say Lor, Pdf file 1.8M - Free Download from Biodiversity, Eight myths and facts from a top dietician, Durian Seasons In Durian Production Areas, Durian: Crop Production Cycle and Orchard Management Practices, Uneven Fruit Ripening (UFR); Wet Core and Tip Burn In Durian, Durian Tree Inventory - Why and How To Do It, D197 - Musang King Durian or Mao Shan Wang, D 200 - Black Thorn or Durian Duri Hitam, Durian Info & Services: Department of Agriculture Malaysia, A Beginner's Guide To Durian by Tourism Malaysia, What Americans and Canadians Say About The Durian. Although the durian is not native to Thailand, Thailand is ranked the world's number one exporter of durian, producing around 700,000 tonnes of durian per year, 400,000 tonnes of which are exported to mainland China and Hong Kong. The 6 additional species included in Durio s.l. The flesh is thick, not solid, yellow coloured, and has a sweet taste. The most recent molecular evidence (on which the most recent, well-supported circumscription of Durioneae is based) therefore refutes Corner's Durian Theory. But they are no more African than any other people. For example, some popular clones are Sultan (D24), Kop (D99 Thai: กบ – "frog" Thai pronunciation: [kòp]), Chanee (D123, Thai: ชะนี – "gibbon" Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰániː]), Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 Thai: ทุเรียนเขียว – Green Durian Thai pronunciation: [tʰúriːən kʰǐow]), Kan Yao (D158, Thai: ก้านยาว – Long Stem Thai pronunciation: [kâːn jaːw]), Mon Thong (D159, Thai: หมอนทอง – Golden Pillow Thai pronunciation: [mɔ̌ːn tʰɔːŋ]), Kradum Thong (Thai: กระดุมทอง – Golden Button Thai pronunciation: [kràdum tʰɔːŋ]), and with no common name, D169. It was called "Durian Botak" ('Bald Durian'). Some people in southern Thailand prefer their durians relatively young when the clusters of fruit within the shell are still crisp in texture and mild in flavour. [55], One of the names Thailand contributed to the list of storm names for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones was 'Durian',[79] which was retired after the second storm of this name in 2006. Durian was introduced into Australia in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975. Violence against women is rife in Papua New Guinea; 68% of women in the country suffer physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. The nectar and pollen of the durian flower that honeybees collect is an important honey source, but the characteristics of the honey are unknown. Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern part of the world's second largest island and is prey to volcanic activity, earthquakes and tidal waves. The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, and it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in Southeast Asian cuisines. The Kadayawan Festival is an annual celebration featuring the durian in Davao City. New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez.In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Inside there are five things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours. PNG Opposition looking to return to parliament Radio New Zealand 05:01 30-Nov-20 [20], Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious nectar, and give off a heavy, sour, and buttery odour. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, and has been described variously as rotten onions, turpentine, and raw sewage. A durian that falls off the tree continues to ripen for two to four days, but after five or six days most would consider it overripe and unpalatable,[3] although some Thais proceed from that point to cook it with palm sugar, creating a dessert called durian (or thurian) guan.[59]. [9][18] Genome analysis also indicated that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton.[9][18]. Join Facebook to connect with Durian Papua and others you may know. [30], Known locally as "durian IOI", this variety has a round shape, medium size, green and yellow outer skin colour, and has flesh easy to dislodge. Dubbed the 'underwater photographer's paradise', we’ve taken away many an international award for underwater photography captured here. [50] The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. [58] However, the ideal stage of ripeness to be enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia and by species. [10] Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. Explore our premier surfing destinations from October to April. [10] Since the bases of the scales develop into spines as the fruit matures, sometimes spineless durians are produced artificially by scraping scales off immature fruits. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. [64], Tempoyak, made from fermented durian in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Tempoyak ikan patin, catfish in tempoyak curry, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia, Ketan durian, glutinous rice with durian sauce in Indonesia, Durian cake made of durian-flavoured dodol, Indonesian traditional sweet candy, Keripik durian Medan (durian chips) in Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia, A street side durian ice cream in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Durian Keju Bollen, a pastry filled with cheese and durian cream in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Durian cakes from Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. Animals such as Sumatran elephants and tigers are known to consume durians. [28][84], The Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like D. testudinarius and D. dulcis constitute a genetically diverse crop source.[36]. [10], In 2019, researchers from the Technical University of Munich identified ethanethiol and its derivatives as a reason for its fetid smell. Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day Myanmar , and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand and South Vietnam . Since PNG is just north of Australia, its durian season most probably follows that of Northern Territories - November to January. [10], A common local belief is that the durian is harmful when eaten with coffee[44] or alcoholic beverages. [47], b. [50] Sugar content, primarily sucrose, has a range of 8-20% among different durian varieties. In 1929, J. D. Gimlette wrote in his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures that the durian fruit must not be eaten with brandy. Mainland Papua New Guinea reaches its maximum north-south expanse of some 510 miles (820 km) along its western border with Indonesian Papua. [63], Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. Malaysia negotiated a deal with China to export the whole fruit frozen for the first time to China starting in 2019, previously only Thailand was permitted to export the whole fruit to China. The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk with each flower having a calyx (sepals) and five (rarely four or six) petals. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km 2 (303,381 sq mi), the largest island in the Southern Hemisphere.Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. The genus Durio has a complex taxonomy that has seen the subtraction and addition of many species since it was created by Rumphius. Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16-29%, fat content by 2-5%, protein content by 2-4%, dietary fibre content by 1-4%, and caloric value by 84-185 kcal per 100 grams. [10], Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. [65] Translated from the Latin in which Poggio Bracciolini recorded de Conti's travels: "They [people of Sumatra] have a green fruit which they call durian, as big as a watermelon. [47] He cited one traveller from 1599:[b] "it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world, according to those who have tasted it. [52], Hundreds of phytochemicals responsible for durian flavour and aroma include diverse volatile compounds, such as esters, ketones, alcohols (primarily ethanol), and organosulfur compounds, with various thiols. Novelist Anthony Burgess writes that eating durian is "like eating sweet raspberry blancmange in the lavatory". [9][50] Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas; for example, red durian (D. dulcis) has a deep caramel flavour with a turpentine odour while red-fleshed durian (D. graveolens) emits a fragrance of roasted almonds. However, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds". It was … [21] According to research conducted in Malaysia in the 1970s, durians were pollinated almost exclusively by cave fruit bats (Eonycteris spelaea);[10] however, a 1996 study indicated two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and another species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and birds as well as bats. The New Guinea campaign of the Pacific War lasted from January 1942 until the end of the war in August 1945. [42] Many consumers in Singapore are nevertheless quite willing to spend up to around S$75 (US$50) on a single purchase of about half a dozen of the favoured fruit to be shared by family members.[23]. [3][4] Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions. Expatriate health insurance in Papua New Guinea Free advice and quotation service to choose an expat health insurance in Papua New Guinea. Sambal Tempoyak is a Malay dish made from the fermented durian fruit, coconut milk, and a collection of spicy ingredients known as sambal. [9], Durio sensu lato has 30 recognised species. Some individuals are unable to differentiate these smells and find this fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing. The durian growing areas in West Malaysia can be divided into 3 regions influenced by the monsoons and the change from wet to dry weather and the effect of a dry spell. Bob and Ira Spring [10] The leaves are evergreen, elliptic to oblong and 10–18 centimetres (4–7 inches) long. Agriculture in 2017 accounted for 22.1% of the GDP and supported more than 80% of the population. [42], The durian is a seasonal fruit, unlike some other non-seasonal tropical fruits such as the papaya which are available throughout the year. Malaysians make both sugared and salted preserves from durian. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected. [7][8] The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the civet (Viverra zibetha), known for its odour. In-season durians can be found in mainstream Japanese supermarkets, while in the West they are sold mainly by Asian markets. Several medical investigations on the validity of this belief have been conducted with varying conclusions,[10] though a study by the University of Tsukuba finds the fruit's high sulphur content inhibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing a 70 percent reduction of the ability to clear toxins from the body. [83] The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. Moving forward The additional funding and expansion of UYEP will ensure the project can open opportunities for up to 15,000 unemployed young people by 2018 to help them find positive long-term employment. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. It is native to Borneo and Sumatra.[3]. To teenaged girls selling sex on the streets of Papua New Guinea's capital, Port Moresby, Bertha* is both a mother figure and a pimp. Login Sign up Within PNG it is eaten on Karkar Island, along the Rai Coast and in the Schrader Range of Madang Province; and on Kairiru Island and in the Schouten Islands in East Sepik Province. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (D. dulcis) exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. This fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing 63 ], Over the centuries, numerous cultivars... Premier surfing destinations from October to April fragrance, whereas others find the aroma with! The subtraction and addition of many species since it was called `` durian Botak '' ( durian! 22.1 % of the population celebrates ) to connect with durian Papua and others may... Lato has 30 recognised species 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in a sauce. 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