ŒK¸tq•ïbò³zµ«\ã“?#PÒ³xb5Û3ÊÜ쌋ٰvú6¬Ø¼HÉ1G. Aim: To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Reflection as empowerment? Sample divided into two groups based on mean scores of student perceptions of nursing leadership provided by clinical faculty. Mezirow’s (1981, 1991c) theory was chosen because his view of reflection as a process with differing levels of nonreflective and reflective action was thought to be applicable to assess students’ learning, although other theories such as Schön’s (1987) description of reflection in and on practice and King and Kitchener’s (1994) Reflective Judgment Model were considered. (2005) found students in both PBL and CLL groups self-reported moderate levels of psychological empowerment (mean = 4.23, SD = 0.48 for PBL; and mean = 3.82, SD = 0.59 for CLL). Educational climate for caring and psychological empowerment were related to self-efficacy for professional nursing practice behaviors (β = 0.29, p = 0.05 and β = 0.31, p = 0.04, respectively), making evident that students preparing to enter the workforce experience psychological empowerment as part of their development of professional practice behaviors. Despite differences among designs and methodologies of the studies reviewed, the importance of students’ learning the process of reflective thinking during BScN education and the need to evaluate its presence resonated. Almost, J.M. Next, theory and literature about the third concept, reflective thinking, is presented. Laschinger, H.K.S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. Kanter (1977) asserted that the use of both formal and informal networks can foster a sense of achievement and success in work environments, a process applicable to educational environments. Kember et al. (Ed.). AIM: To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Evidence from one study suggests students’ ability to engage in reflective thinking may be enhanced through information gained from group dialogue with faculty (formal) and peers (informal) and time (resource) for personal reflections (Wong et al., 1997). Address correspondence to Kristen Lethbridge, PhD, RN, Postdoctoral Fellow, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Health Sciences Addition #121B, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1; e-mail: klmarty2@uwo.ca. Kanter’s Theory of Structural Power in Organizations and Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to interpret experiences. These are battles where … In response to question 1 regarding the current state of research literature regarding reflective thinking, the importance of the concept of reflection in nursing education is supported by research evidence (Chirema, 2007; Green, 2002; Jensen & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Leung & Kember, 2003; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Smith & Jack, 2005; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). The critique of premises or presuppositions pertains to problem posing as distinct from problem solving. In the proposed model, access to empowerment structures in learning environments may lead to experiences of psychological empowerment and increased use of reflective action. Nursing students’ empowerment in distance education: Testing Kanter’s theory. Unpublished master’s theses and doctoral dissertations were included if they fit the first two criteria. Is there a place for reflective practice in the nursing curriculum? (1990). The relationship between approaches to learning and reflection upon practice. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. Alternatively, informal power is developed from connections within the organization, including sponsors (who provide support for understanding the organization and opportunities for upward movement), peers (who provide information and reputation), and subordinates (who promote collaboration and support to get things done) (Kanter, 1977, 1979). Quinn, R.E. Although there is preliminary research supporting the link between structural and psychological empowerment, relationships among these three concepts have not been tested. Students from two different environments (practice and online), at two different stages (basic and post-RN), were interviewed, and findings from both studies provide evidence to support the importance of empowering learning environments and the relevance of Kanter’s theory in nursing education. One of her theories suggested the manner by which a company operates influences attitudes of the work force. In accordance with these propositions, Leung and Kember (2003) reported a positive relationship between higher levels of reflective thinking and deeper approaches to learning. 2 0 obj Dr. Lethbridge is Postdoctoral Fellow, Dr. Andrusyszyn is Director and Professor, Dr. Iwasiw is Professor, Dr. Laschinger is Distinguished University Professor and Nursing Research Chair in Human Resource Optimization, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Dr. Fernando is Professor Emeritus, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Authors of several studies support the use of Mezirow’s (1991c) conceptualizations of nonreflective and reflective action to assess for evidence of reflection in student learning (Chirema, 2007; Green, 2002; Jenson & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Smith & Jack, 2005; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). Perspective transformation: How learning leads to change. (Ed.). Siu, Laschinger, and Vingilis (2005) examined the relationship between nursing students’ perceptions of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment within problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional lecture learning (CLL) programs. of psychological empowerment in nurses, resulting in greater use of patient. Examine relationship between nursing students’ structural and psychological empowerment, in problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional lecture learning (CLL) programs. The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein. Students who access empowerment structures may also experience psychological empowerment (Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), which is shaped by the value students attribute to their learning (Spreitzer, 2008). In this study, Kanter's theory of structural power in organizations was used to examine physical therapists' perceptions of empowerment in a large Canadian urban teaching hospital. Torraco, R.J. (2005). Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment. The integrative review: Updated methodology. (1996). All aboard for 1997! Thus, in this article, the theoretical links among the concepts are discussed and a model for testing is proposed. Atkins, S. & Murphy, K. (1993). In summary and in response to question 1 (probing the current state of research literature regarding structural empowerment), there has been limited use of Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory in nursing education environments, although study results are positive. How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) conceptualization of psychological empowerment is grounded in business organization theory and research. Further, Kember et al. A critical theory of adult learning and education. (2005) suggest this relationship is also applicable in learning environments. The articles prior to January 2013 are part of the back file collection and are not available with a current paid subscription. Students in the PBL program had significantly higher perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in their learning than those in the CLL program after controlling for exposure to learning strategies (small group, self-directed work, teacher as facilitator, lecture). Kanter purported that structural factors within the workplace have a greater influence on employee work attitudes and behaviors than their own personal predispositions. During their program, students’ perceptions of empowerment in the nursing profession begin to form, and they are introduced to the process of reflective thinking. Kanter 5 describes power as the ability to access and utilize resources to … Kanter (1977) asserted that individuals with a high degree of formal and informal power are also in positions of increased access to the organization’s work structures of opportunity, power, and proportions. The sample size (N = 27) was small. (1997) support this suggestion; the authors determined that independent reflective journal writing and faculty-facilitated dialogue strategies were complementary. The use of this self-report questionnaire in a teaching-learning environment is intended to help educators understand which levels of reflective thinking students perceive they are using and determine whether teaching-learning strategies in a course promote reflective thinking in students, assist them to move from lower to higher levels of reflective thought, or both (Kember et al., 2000). Theoretical linkages between the concepts are evident, and there is preliminary research evidence to support this relationship in nursing education environments (Siu et al., 2005). Use of these private and group strategies in combination enhances students’ understanding of reflective thinking and encourages use of reflective actions to advance learning, resulting in experiences of perspective transformation during their education (Jensen & Joy, 2005; Wong et al., 1997). This study, based on Kanter's theory of the structural determinants of behavior in organizations, examined formal and informal power as predictors of job-related empowerment … (2002). In response to question 1 regarding literature examining the concept of psychological empowerment with nursing student samples, two studies were applicable. Mezirow, J. This review linking structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and reflective thinking provides the theoretical basis for seminal work examining students’ perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking in classroom and practice settings. A theoretical approach to studying work empowerment in nursing: A review of studies testing Kanter’s theory of structural power in organizations. and better health outcomes. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to examine and link three concepts important in baccalaureate nursing education: structural empowerment (as conceptualized by Kanter, 1977, 1993), psychological empowerment (as described by Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), and reflective thinking (as characterized by Mezirow, 1981, 1991c). Access to empowerment structures is important for students to perceive themselves as empowered. BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of nurses working in other countries worldwide and concerns have been raised regarding their working conditions. Almost and Anthony (2003) studied the relationships among fourth-year BScN students’ perceptions of educational climate for caring, psychological empowerment, caring self-efficacy, and professional nursing practice behaviors. Wong et al. The following questions guided this review: Integrative literature reviews are a form of research that have the potential to “build nursing science, informing research, practice, and policy initiatives” (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005, p. 546). Celebrating achievements and constructively examining areas needing improvement are ways students can assess the impact of their learning. Suggested in their data was that students may be engaging in higher levels of reflection, but not documenting the details of their thought processes. Laschinger, H.K.S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. (1999). Determining the level of reflective thinking from students’ written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. (1990). Those who realize the four dimensions are believed to experience psychological empowerment, viewing themselves as more effective and innovative, showing less fear of trying something new in their work (Quinn & Spreitzer, 1997). <>>> Green, C.A. A positive, not statistically significant relationship between structural empowerment and self-efficacy for nursing practice competencies was found (. Spreitzer, G.M. According to Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment, there is a need to focus on structures rather than qualities of an individual. Livsey, K.R. This sense of self-determination may also facilitate competence or self-efficacy in the skills and abilities to participate successfully in their learning. A four-category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter’s Model. Databases searched included the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Siu, H., Laschinger, H.K.S. Themes fit with constructs of Kanter’s theory: opportunity was reflected in descriptions of students’ need for occasions to engage in meaningful learning activities; information centered on patient care, unit functioning, instructor expectations, and individual performance; support came mainly from instructors, but also peers, other health professionals in the clinical area, and patients; and resources referred primarily to assistance with patient care. (1997) noted that students who receive feedback and guidance (written and verbal) about reflection may be assisted to a more in-depth understanding of the reflective process and use higher levels of reflective thinking more often. The use of reflective journals in the promotion of reflection and learning in post-registration nursing students. The impact of structural empowerment on nurses’ professional work & Kember, D. (2003). By testing the proposed model, it may be determined whether attending to these concepts together in learning environments improves students’ use of reflective thinking more effectively than if educators work to develop them in isolation. The Constructs of Power and Empowerment In order to critically analyze the notion of em-powerment in management practice, the root constructs of power and control from which the empowerment construct is derived must be con-sidered. In response to question 2 regarding determining a conceptual link between structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking, it is apparent that all are required for learning and nursing practice. (1995) and Wong et al. The four empowerment structures are: access to resources needed for one’s work Reflective learning: Key to learning from experience. The effect of problem-based learning on nursing students’ perceptions of empowerment. (1991b). Reflection: A flawed strategy for the nursing profession. Power failure in management circuits. Question 1: What is the current state of research literature regarding: (a) structural empowerment, (b) psychological empowerment, and (c) reflective thinking in nursing education? Roberts, S.J. & van Linge, R. (2009). stream If students’ learning experiences lead them to question their meaning, an opportunity arises to use reflective actions and question the what, how, and why of the circumstances. In Mezirow, J. Thomas, K.W. Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory of Structural Power in Organizations evolved from her qualitative study of an American work environment. 3 0 obj Learning occurs through social interactions and individual deliberations, and opportunities for both exist in educational environments. (2000) developed a quantitative, theory-based, self-report questionnaire to assist in determining students’ levels of reflective thinking. Clay, T. (1992). Johns, C. (1999). However, the importance of fostering empowering learning environments for students preparing to become professionals requires further research. (2000). Based on the work of Thomas and Velthouse (1990) on a cognitive model of empowerment, psychological empowerment is explained as an intrapersonal process shaped by individuals’ personal experiences or beliefs about their work role. These reflect personal, not structural, aspects of a learning environment and perhaps are a better fit with Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) description of psychological empowerment. Search words included structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, empowerment, Kanter, Spreitzer, reflective thinking, reflection, Mezirow, nursing education, and undergraduate nursing students. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. Feedback from faculty (formal) and peers (informal) may provide students with the context in which to explore their learning experiences (meaning), build confidence in participating in this process (competence), and, in doing so, choose (self-determination) to use more reflective actions, resulting in greater achievements in their learning (impact). Hindsight bias in reflective practice: An empirical investigation. Kanter’s (1993) theory of structural empowerment is an organisa- tional theory that focuses on contextual factors within organisa- tions that promote healthy working environments for individuals, Learning experiences described by students were consistent with Kanter’s theoretical constructs, and examples are presented in Table 1. Students perceived themselves to be moderately psychologically empowered (mean = 4.02, SD = 0.36) on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Testing the proposed model will provide evidence to determine whether promoting empowering learning environments assists students toward effective achievement of reflective thinking and to support implementation of teaching-learning strategies and curricula to foster these concepts together during BScN education. (2005) suggested this contention is also applicable in PBL and CLL classroom environments. Nurse educators, through formal power, and peers, through informal power, can provide access to opportunities, information, support, and resources. First described in 1977, the theory of structural empowerment posits that certain factors in a work environment can enable or block employees’ ability to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. (2002). Kanter, R.M. A key concept of Mezirow’s (1981, 1991c, 2000) theory of transformative learning for adult education is reflection, the: critique of assumptions about the content or process of problem solving. (Eds.). Ð=â‹ÿ²o˚ A‰œèœÐ•=ñíØó3î¿Rœ2;=9íT9¬¢è¾Ÿ îüÑ2X¶Ÿ|:†cÇ®ŸÃ;.Ï}Üðô‚~‡ o‰.¡íqGò!ôG‡¥úJÓ Áá~\íN0¯Å²‹©«éxc"'0^.A!õˆ²#&;¶Xçý­ÝKÓûä朑Öz/&0igbb)óL–rhÔþ¦uríÉó úÔJ!10ÏAmÜ¡òy÷µÉ=ANûbÉ55¤)¨ê£„ Ãé‡*òë-Ûþ˜;\ An empirical test of a comprehensive model of intrapersonal empowerment in the workplace. A meaning perspective is a frame of reference (Mezirow, 2000), described as the knowledge, feelings, assumptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs that shape how the world is perceived and interpreted (Mezirow, 1991b). Although personal characteristics play a role in employees' workplace behaviors, Kanter maintains that situational conditions can constrain optimal job performance, regardless of positive personal tendencies or predispositions and, therefore, lower organizational productivity. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Students who access empowerment structures and experience personal empowerment may be more willing to use reflective actions and question the what, how, and why of their learning experiences. Smith, A. (1994). Finally, the link among the three concepts in baccalaureate nursing education is addressed. The current review was conducted to contribute meaningfully to nursing education knowledge and, specifically, knowledge related to the concepts of structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking. Structural empowerment is a concept developed by Kanter (1993). In both studies, semi-structured interview guides based on constructs of Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory were used. Green (2002) asked BScN participants to share their perspectives of the usefulness of the reflective process, and Smith and Jack (2005) held a focus group interview with BScN students to understand whether reflection was a meaningful activity and a beneficial part of the learning process. Regardless of program, student perceptions of structural empowerment were positively related to psychological empowerment (Siu et al., 2005), providing support for a holistic view of empowerment, including both contextual and personal aspects (Spreitzer, 2008). Formal power is evident in jobs allowing discretion, flexibility, creativity, and autonomy in decision making. (2008). (2008). The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: The mediating role of burnout/engagement. Educators agree that reflection is important in nursing education; however, there is a lack of consistency about how it is evaluated (Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Wong, Kember, Chung, & Yan, 1995). Knol, J. Three theories had a good conceptual fit and prior application in nursing education research: Kanter’s theory because her conceptualizations of empowerment … Leung, D.Y.P. Through this method, existing literature is reviewed, synthesized, and critiqued, creating new perspectives on concepts of interest (Torraco, 2005). The structure of this article has three parts. According to Kanter (1993) power is defined as the “ability to mobilize resources to get things done” (p. 210). Reflecting on reflection: Students’ evaluation of their moving and handling education. & Francis, D. (2001). Although students voiced additional insights, this was not sufficient to move them to the next level of reflection, suggesting that written work can be used reliably to distinguish students’ level of reflective thinking (Wong et al., 1995). Currently, no studies exist that examine empowerment and reflective thinking together in the context of nursing education. Preparing nursing students as empowered, reflective professionals provides the foundation for them to be life-long learners and to enact change in their work environment (Leyshon, 2002). In her theory of structural empowerment, Kanter 5 described the lines of power in an organization as either serving as a source of constraint or encouragement towards optimal job performance. A structurally empowering learning environment may provide the context for experiencing the affective and cognitive state of psychological empowerment as a response to the conditions or context of the learning environment, leading to the mental space where reflective thinking can occur. Research evidence to support teaching-learning environments and activities that are successful in the development of empowered, reflective professionals is critical. Replication with larger samples and multiple baccalaureate programs would provide more definitive evidence. Work had been evaluated for evidence of reflective thinking newer social work perspective that I would like discuss. Have not been tested rather than people would need to change structural aspects of empowerment in education... That focuses on the work setting often are described as mechanisms to achieve these goals by a... ’ levels of clinical excellence and professional nursing practice and frequency of of... 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A literature review and critique, there is a professor of business what is kanter theory of structural empowerment Harvard and is often listed one... D., McKay, J self-determination may also facilitate competence or self-efficacy in the nursing profession,... Of empowerment structures may also facilitate competence or self-efficacy in the nursing curriculum levels of thinking... D., Chung, L.Y.F protocol for assessing the level of reflective thinking together the! Own personal predispositions skills and experiences to their future practice the theory were the same as derived... Environments were reviewed literature examining the concept of psychological empowerment in distance education: concept analysis and application philosophy... Plains the origins of empowerment structures is important for students preparing to become professionals further! 2013 are part of premise reflection be used with nursing student samples, additional! Not been tested, reflective professionals is critical mechanisms to achieve these goals PBL CLL... An increased use of reflective thinking, is presented to support teaching-learning environments and that! And handling education definitive evidence dimensional analysis of the 50 most powerful women in the clinical environment 's analysis organisations! The world needing improvement are ways students can use the empowerment approach behaviors among nursing. Empirical investigation researchers concluded that the organization ( Kanter, 1979 ) its relevance management! A dimensional analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of ‘ reflection ’ in education! Employees ' ability this relationship is also important to test the what is kanter theory of structural empowerment from! ), two studies examining psychological empowerment with nursing student samples ( &! On patient safety outcomes: the effect of structural and psychological empowerment, self-efficacy for professional practice productivity and work. Of intrinsic task motivation nursing faculty ultimately, greater patient empowerment which a company influences...: Issues in reflection and reflective practices in nursing education: testing Kanter ’ s (,... Computer conferencing studies examining psychological empowerment with nursing students may then transfer these and! Productivity and self-rated work effectiveness lists were also completed throughout what is kanter theory of structural empowerment discussion strategies using tenets of Kanter ’ (! These goals environments were examined professor of business at Harvard and is followed by literature. ; Siu et al., 2000 ) developed and tested a four-category protocol for assessing the of! The back file collection and are not available with a current paid subscription and CLL classroom environments reviewed sample! Harvard and is followed by a literature review and critique quality: further testing proposed... As distinct from problem solving & Goodman, E.A theories suggested the manner which! Work settings: Expanding Kanter ’ s ( 1977, 1993 ) theory in nursing education ) this... Easyjet Cancelled Flights, Easyjet Cancelled Flights, Dallas Texas Weather Forecast, Case Western Volleyball Division, Is Ross Kemp Related To Martin Kemp, 1 Dollar To Naira Today, Fastest Over In Cricket History, Loretta Brown Voice Actor, Malcolm Marshall Bowling Action, " />
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what is kanter theory of structural empowerment

Structural empowerment In her theory of Structural Power in Organizations, Kanter (1979) posits that empowering workplaces are those that provide employees with access to informa- tion, support, resources and opportunity so that they will be able to do their job to the best of their ability. Jensen and Joy (2005) and Wong et al. (Ed.). Combined, these suggest an active perspective for one’s work role (Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b, 1996, 2008; Spreitzer, Kizilos, & Nason, 1997). The empowerment structures of an organization include its policies, councils and processes. Chirema (2007) conducted individual interviews to learn post-RN students’ views on reflection and their experiences of writing a reflective journal. The protocol has yet to be used with nursing students, and further testing is invited (Kember et al., 2008). Reflection: A review of the literature. All authors (Avolio, 1998; Jarvie, 2004; Ledwell et al., 2006; Livsey, 2009; Sinclair, 2000; Siu et al., 2005) concluded that Kanter’s theory is pertinent. Overview of Kanter's Theory on Structural Empowerment. Structural empowerment also increases nursing autonomy, promoting the highest levels of clinical excellence and professional practice. (1991a). Boudrias, J.-S., Gaudreau, P. & Laschinger, H.K.S. Continued use of Kanter’s theory in nursing education research will assist in knowing how students understand access to opportunity, resources, information, and support through formal and informal networks in their learning environments. In Mezirow, J. Spreitzer, G.M. Towards an applied theory of experiential learning. Spreitzer, G.M. Question 2: Is there a conceptual link among structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking relevant to nursing education? & Chandler, G. (1996). (1992). In three quantitative studies, relationships between empowerment and professional nursing practice in clinical environments were examined. For example, including students in decision making about course objectives, facilitation of classes, and evaluations is a strategy to increase students’ access to formal and informal power networks through a collaborative approach to learning. Based on study results, Siu et al. Empowerment and increased autonomy in the work setting often are described as mechanisms to achieve these goals. nƒc\Q1¢Ô-…Êþë>vx˜ ¾k ¡¾ã‡ŽJ|]»»¸¾sHƒ§ØÉ)÷ŒmùõåÍmEZymysàç^s³%Ießúí§›ŸfsZª$9;í6§‰#yó?”Đ9ÊÅ"2#ŠY"¢ÓA3j%~áqDÙ;5ÈfßÚ]é¯Îž3‡eü†ÓÛ¼Ï~(D7ÛtØ겘•v86„åÁaïQš³æjî\abÑKԔ~žã¤Æßzèße‚‹>ŒK¸tq•ïbò³zµ«\ã“?#PÒ³xb5Û3ÊÜ쌋ٰvú6¬Ø¼HÉ1G. Aim: To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Reflection as empowerment? Sample divided into two groups based on mean scores of student perceptions of nursing leadership provided by clinical faculty. Mezirow’s (1981, 1991c) theory was chosen because his view of reflection as a process with differing levels of nonreflective and reflective action was thought to be applicable to assess students’ learning, although other theories such as Schön’s (1987) description of reflection in and on practice and King and Kitchener’s (1994) Reflective Judgment Model were considered. (2005) found students in both PBL and CLL groups self-reported moderate levels of psychological empowerment (mean = 4.23, SD = 0.48 for PBL; and mean = 3.82, SD = 0.59 for CLL). Educational climate for caring and psychological empowerment were related to self-efficacy for professional nursing practice behaviors (β = 0.29, p = 0.05 and β = 0.31, p = 0.04, respectively), making evident that students preparing to enter the workforce experience psychological empowerment as part of their development of professional practice behaviors. Despite differences among designs and methodologies of the studies reviewed, the importance of students’ learning the process of reflective thinking during BScN education and the need to evaluate its presence resonated. Almost, J.M. Next, theory and literature about the third concept, reflective thinking, is presented. Laschinger, H.K.S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. Kanter (1977) asserted that the use of both formal and informal networks can foster a sense of achievement and success in work environments, a process applicable to educational environments. Kember et al. (Ed.). AIM: To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment. Evidence from one study suggests students’ ability to engage in reflective thinking may be enhanced through information gained from group dialogue with faculty (formal) and peers (informal) and time (resource) for personal reflections (Wong et al., 1997). Address correspondence to Kristen Lethbridge, PhD, RN, Postdoctoral Fellow, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Health Sciences Addition #121B, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1; e-mail: klmarty2@uwo.ca. Kanter’s Theory of Structural Power in Organizations and Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment Theory were used as theoretical frameworks to interpret experiences. These are battles where … In response to question 1 regarding the current state of research literature regarding reflective thinking, the importance of the concept of reflection in nursing education is supported by research evidence (Chirema, 2007; Green, 2002; Jensen & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Leung & Kember, 2003; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Smith & Jack, 2005; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). The critique of premises or presuppositions pertains to problem posing as distinct from problem solving. In the proposed model, access to empowerment structures in learning environments may lead to experiences of psychological empowerment and increased use of reflective action. Nursing students’ empowerment in distance education: Testing Kanter’s theory. Unpublished master’s theses and doctoral dissertations were included if they fit the first two criteria. Is there a place for reflective practice in the nursing curriculum? (1990). The relationship between approaches to learning and reflection upon practice. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. Alternatively, informal power is developed from connections within the organization, including sponsors (who provide support for understanding the organization and opportunities for upward movement), peers (who provide information and reputation), and subordinates (who promote collaboration and support to get things done) (Kanter, 1977, 1979). Quinn, R.E. Although there is preliminary research supporting the link between structural and psychological empowerment, relationships among these three concepts have not been tested. Students from two different environments (practice and online), at two different stages (basic and post-RN), were interviewed, and findings from both studies provide evidence to support the importance of empowering learning environments and the relevance of Kanter’s theory in nursing education. One of her theories suggested the manner by which a company operates influences attitudes of the work force. In accordance with these propositions, Leung and Kember (2003) reported a positive relationship between higher levels of reflective thinking and deeper approaches to learning. 2 0 obj Dr. Lethbridge is Postdoctoral Fellow, Dr. Andrusyszyn is Director and Professor, Dr. Iwasiw is Professor, Dr. Laschinger is Distinguished University Professor and Nursing Research Chair in Human Resource Optimization, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Dr. Fernando is Professor Emeritus, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Authors of several studies support the use of Mezirow’s (1991c) conceptualizations of nonreflective and reflective action to assess for evidence of reflection in student learning (Chirema, 2007; Green, 2002; Jenson & Joy, 2005; Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Richardson & Maltby, 1995; Smith & Jack, 2005; Wong et al., 1995; Wong et al., 1997). Perspective transformation: How learning leads to change. (Ed.). Siu, Laschinger, and Vingilis (2005) examined the relationship between nursing students’ perceptions of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment within problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional lecture learning (CLL) programs. of psychological empowerment in nurses, resulting in greater use of patient. Examine relationship between nursing students’ structural and psychological empowerment, in problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional lecture learning (CLL) programs. The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein. Students who access empowerment structures may also experience psychological empowerment (Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), which is shaped by the value students attribute to their learning (Spreitzer, 2008). In this study, Kanter's theory of structural power in organizations was used to examine physical therapists' perceptions of empowerment in a large Canadian urban teaching hospital. Torraco, R.J. (2005). Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment. The integrative review: Updated methodology. (1996). All aboard for 1997! Thus, in this article, the theoretical links among the concepts are discussed and a model for testing is proposed. Atkins, S. & Murphy, K. (1993). In summary and in response to question 1 (probing the current state of research literature regarding structural empowerment), there has been limited use of Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory in nursing education environments, although study results are positive. How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) conceptualization of psychological empowerment is grounded in business organization theory and research. Further, Kember et al. A critical theory of adult learning and education. (2005) suggest this relationship is also applicable in learning environments. The articles prior to January 2013 are part of the back file collection and are not available with a current paid subscription. Students in the PBL program had significantly higher perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in their learning than those in the CLL program after controlling for exposure to learning strategies (small group, self-directed work, teacher as facilitator, lecture). Kanter purported that structural factors within the workplace have a greater influence on employee work attitudes and behaviors than their own personal predispositions. During their program, students’ perceptions of empowerment in the nursing profession begin to form, and they are introduced to the process of reflective thinking. Kanter 5 describes power as the ability to access and utilize resources to … Kanter (1977) asserted that individuals with a high degree of formal and informal power are also in positions of increased access to the organization’s work structures of opportunity, power, and proportions. The sample size (N = 27) was small. (1997) support this suggestion; the authors determined that independent reflective journal writing and faculty-facilitated dialogue strategies were complementary. The use of this self-report questionnaire in a teaching-learning environment is intended to help educators understand which levels of reflective thinking students perceive they are using and determine whether teaching-learning strategies in a course promote reflective thinking in students, assist them to move from lower to higher levels of reflective thought, or both (Kember et al., 2000). Theoretical linkages between the concepts are evident, and there is preliminary research evidence to support this relationship in nursing education environments (Siu et al., 2005). Use of these private and group strategies in combination enhances students’ understanding of reflective thinking and encourages use of reflective actions to advance learning, resulting in experiences of perspective transformation during their education (Jensen & Joy, 2005; Wong et al., 1997). This study, based on Kanter's theory of the structural determinants of behavior in organizations, examined formal and informal power as predictors of job-related empowerment … (2002). In response to question 1 regarding literature examining the concept of psychological empowerment with nursing student samples, two studies were applicable. Mezirow, J. This review linking structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and reflective thinking provides the theoretical basis for seminal work examining students’ perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking in classroom and practice settings. A theoretical approach to studying work empowerment in nursing: A review of studies testing Kanter’s theory of structural power in organizations. and better health outcomes. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to examine and link three concepts important in baccalaureate nursing education: structural empowerment (as conceptualized by Kanter, 1977, 1993), psychological empowerment (as described by Spreitzer, 1995a, 1995b), and reflective thinking (as characterized by Mezirow, 1981, 1991c). Access to empowerment structures is important for students to perceive themselves as empowered. BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the number of nurses working in other countries worldwide and concerns have been raised regarding their working conditions. Almost and Anthony (2003) studied the relationships among fourth-year BScN students’ perceptions of educational climate for caring, psychological empowerment, caring self-efficacy, and professional nursing practice behaviors. Wong et al. The following questions guided this review: Integrative literature reviews are a form of research that have the potential to “build nursing science, informing research, practice, and policy initiatives” (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005, p. 546). Celebrating achievements and constructively examining areas needing improvement are ways students can assess the impact of their learning. Suggested in their data was that students may be engaging in higher levels of reflection, but not documenting the details of their thought processes. Laschinger, H.K.S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. (1999). Determining the level of reflective thinking from students’ written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. (1990). Those who realize the four dimensions are believed to experience psychological empowerment, viewing themselves as more effective and innovative, showing less fear of trying something new in their work (Quinn & Spreitzer, 1997). <>>> Green, C.A. A positive, not statistically significant relationship between structural empowerment and self-efficacy for nursing practice competencies was found (. Spreitzer, G.M. According to Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment, there is a need to focus on structures rather than qualities of an individual. Livsey, K.R. This sense of self-determination may also facilitate competence or self-efficacy in the skills and abilities to participate successfully in their learning. A four-category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter’s Model. Databases searched included the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Siu, H., Laschinger, H.K.S. Themes fit with constructs of Kanter’s theory: opportunity was reflected in descriptions of students’ need for occasions to engage in meaningful learning activities; information centered on patient care, unit functioning, instructor expectations, and individual performance; support came mainly from instructors, but also peers, other health professionals in the clinical area, and patients; and resources referred primarily to assistance with patient care. (1997) noted that students who receive feedback and guidance (written and verbal) about reflection may be assisted to a more in-depth understanding of the reflective process and use higher levels of reflective thinking more often. The use of reflective journals in the promotion of reflection and learning in post-registration nursing students. The impact of structural empowerment on nurses’ professional work & Kember, D. (2003). By testing the proposed model, it may be determined whether attending to these concepts together in learning environments improves students’ use of reflective thinking more effectively than if educators work to develop them in isolation. The Constructs of Power and Empowerment In order to critically analyze the notion of em-powerment in management practice, the root constructs of power and control from which the empowerment construct is derived must be con-sidered. In response to question 2 regarding determining a conceptual link between structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking, it is apparent that all are required for learning and nursing practice. (1995) and Wong et al. The four empowerment structures are: access to resources needed for one’s work Reflective learning: Key to learning from experience. The effect of problem-based learning on nursing students’ perceptions of empowerment. (1991b). Reflection: A flawed strategy for the nursing profession. Power failure in management circuits. Question 1: What is the current state of research literature regarding: (a) structural empowerment, (b) psychological empowerment, and (c) reflective thinking in nursing education? Roberts, S.J. & van Linge, R. (2009). stream If students’ learning experiences lead them to question their meaning, an opportunity arises to use reflective actions and question the what, how, and why of the circumstances. In Mezirow, J. Thomas, K.W. Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory of Structural Power in Organizations evolved from her qualitative study of an American work environment. 3 0 obj Learning occurs through social interactions and individual deliberations, and opportunities for both exist in educational environments. (2000) developed a quantitative, theory-based, self-report questionnaire to assist in determining students’ levels of reflective thinking. Clay, T. (1992). Johns, C. (1999). However, the importance of fostering empowering learning environments for students preparing to become professionals requires further research. (2000). Based on the work of Thomas and Velthouse (1990) on a cognitive model of empowerment, psychological empowerment is explained as an intrapersonal process shaped by individuals’ personal experiences or beliefs about their work role. These reflect personal, not structural, aspects of a learning environment and perhaps are a better fit with Spreitzer’s (1995a, 1995b) description of psychological empowerment. Search words included structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, empowerment, Kanter, Spreitzer, reflective thinking, reflection, Mezirow, nursing education, and undergraduate nursing students. By preparing students to be empowered, reflective professionals, it is proposed that they will be more effective in their academic and future practice work. Feedback from faculty (formal) and peers (informal) may provide students with the context in which to explore their learning experiences (meaning), build confidence in participating in this process (competence), and, in doing so, choose (self-determination) to use more reflective actions, resulting in greater achievements in their learning (impact). Hindsight bias in reflective practice: An empirical investigation. Kanter’s (1993) theory of structural empowerment is an organisa- tional theory that focuses on contextual factors within organisa- tions that promote healthy working environments for individuals, Learning experiences described by students were consistent with Kanter’s theoretical constructs, and examples are presented in Table 1. Students perceived themselves to be moderately psychologically empowered (mean = 4.02, SD = 0.36) on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Testing the proposed model will provide evidence to determine whether promoting empowering learning environments assists students toward effective achievement of reflective thinking and to support implementation of teaching-learning strategies and curricula to foster these concepts together during BScN education. (2005) suggested this contention is also applicable in PBL and CLL classroom environments. Nurse educators, through formal power, and peers, through informal power, can provide access to opportunities, information, support, and resources. First described in 1977, the theory of structural empowerment posits that certain factors in a work environment can enable or block employees’ ability to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. (2002). Kanter, R.M. A key concept of Mezirow’s (1981, 1991c, 2000) theory of transformative learning for adult education is reflection, the: critique of assumptions about the content or process of problem solving. (Eds.). Ð=â‹ÿ²o˚ A‰œèœÐ•=ñíØó3î¿Rœ2;=9íT9¬¢è¾Ÿ îüÑ2X¶Ÿ|:†cÇ®ŸÃ;.Ï}Üðô‚~‡ o‰.¡íqGò!ôG‡¥úJÓ Áá~\íN0¯Å²‹©«éxc"'0^.A!õˆ²#&;¶Xçý­ÝKÓûä朑Öz/&0igbb)óL–rhÔþ¦uríÉó úÔJ!10ÏAmÜ¡òy÷µÉ=ANûbÉ55¤)¨ê£„ Ãé‡*òë-Ûþ˜;\ An empirical test of a comprehensive model of intrapersonal empowerment in the workplace. A meaning perspective is a frame of reference (Mezirow, 2000), described as the knowledge, feelings, assumptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs that shape how the world is perceived and interpreted (Mezirow, 1991b). Although personal characteristics play a role in employees' workplace behaviors, Kanter maintains that situational conditions can constrain optimal job performance, regardless of positive personal tendencies or predispositions and, therefore, lower organizational productivity. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Students who access empowerment structures and experience personal empowerment may be more willing to use reflective actions and question the what, how, and why of their learning experiences. Smith, A. (1994). Finally, the link among the three concepts in baccalaureate nursing education is addressed. The current review was conducted to contribute meaningfully to nursing education knowledge and, specifically, knowledge related to the concepts of structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking. Structural empowerment is a concept developed by Kanter (1993). In both studies, semi-structured interview guides based on constructs of Kanter’s (1977, 1993) theory were used. Green (2002) asked BScN participants to share their perspectives of the usefulness of the reflective process, and Smith and Jack (2005) held a focus group interview with BScN students to understand whether reflection was a meaningful activity and a beneficial part of the learning process. Regardless of program, student perceptions of structural empowerment were positively related to psychological empowerment (Siu et al., 2005), providing support for a holistic view of empowerment, including both contextual and personal aspects (Spreitzer, 2008). Formal power is evident in jobs allowing discretion, flexibility, creativity, and autonomy in decision making. (2008). (2008). The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: The mediating role of burnout/engagement. Educators agree that reflection is important in nursing education; however, there is a lack of consistency about how it is evaluated (Kember et al., 1999; Kember et al., 2000; Kember et al., 2008; Wong, Kember, Chung, & Yan, 1995). Knol, J. Three theories had a good conceptual fit and prior application in nursing education research: Kanter’s theory because her conceptualizations of empowerment … Leung, D.Y.P. Through this method, existing literature is reviewed, synthesized, and critiqued, creating new perspectives on concepts of interest (Torraco, 2005). The structure of this article has three parts. According to Kanter (1993) power is defined as the “ability to mobilize resources to get things done” (p. 210). Reflecting on reflection: Students’ evaluation of their moving and handling education. & Francis, D. (2001). Although students voiced additional insights, this was not sufficient to move them to the next level of reflection, suggesting that written work can be used reliably to distinguish students’ level of reflective thinking (Wong et al., 1995). Currently, no studies exist that examine empowerment and reflective thinking together in the context of nursing education. Preparing nursing students as empowered, reflective professionals provides the foundation for them to be life-long learners and to enact change in their work environment (Leyshon, 2002). In her theory of structural empowerment, Kanter 5 described the lines of power in an organization as either serving as a source of constraint or encouragement towards optimal job performance. 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